and UV are generally considered
reliable. More reliable TOC analyzers
• Suitable sensor locations in the
distribution systems that can provide all
electrical and SCADA connections.
• Suitable sensor locations or proper design
of those sensor locations to avoid pressure
transients, which can disrupt sensor
• For optimal locations, a calibrated
water quality and hydraulic model is
• An early warning decision support system
for processing and analyzing data stream
from sensors. Promising data processing
techniques include control chart
techniques, time series analysis, Kriging
techniques, and Kalman filter techniques.
• Multivariate geometric algorithms
for clustering and classification and
univariate filtering to monitor water
quality and identify outlying water quality.
• Metadata that are supplied and updated
on a regular basis
• Strong quality control procedures
In addition to protecting public health,
online monitoring of distribution
system water quality provides auxiliary
information that can be used to optimize
your operation. This advantage can help
justify the cost of online monitoring. Water
utilities are advised to inquire into the full-scale application performance of online
monitoring equipment before purchasing
and deploying these units.