to date, these concentrations were still too
low to impact public health.
The study concluded that no definitive link
between EDCs/PPCPs in drinking water and
human health risk has been established.
This information can help water utility
managers communicate about risk to their
boards, elected officials, and the public.
Preparing for the Future
The Foundation is preparing utilities for
the possibility of more stringent water
quality standards, which would require
more advanced and expensive treatment
Our research has already established that,
while no single treatment process can remove
all types of EDCs and PPCPs from water,
biological filtration, reverse osmosis, and
granulated activated carbon most effectively
remove the most commonly observed EDCs
and PPCPs from treated water.
With the fundamental groundwork laid,
“we are now providing utilities with
guidance on how to make an operating
system work to, eliminate these
contaminants,” Fulmer explained.
We are also urging utilities that take water
from common watersheds to coordinate
their research and communications
Finally, we are talking to regulators about
the trade-offs between ever purer water,
public health risks, costs, and energy use.
“It requires a robust combination of
treatment technologies to remove all
of these compounds,” Fulmer said. “They
are not only expensive, but require a lot
For a deeper look at Foundation research on EDCs and PPCPs in
drinking water, visit our Web site to download a special edition
of Drinking Water Research (Volume 18, issue number 5) devoted
to the topic.