(Kirmeyer and LeChevallier 2001; Sadiq
et al. 2009), and will consider approaches
used in other countries to manage risk for
their regulatory requirements that might be
adapted to the North American situation
(MacDonald et al. 2009; Group et al. 2009).
This project will also increase
understanding of the direct and indirect
costs associated with pipe breaks, and
explore means to consider risks associated
with factors with high social and
environmental impacts that might result
from pipe breaks. Utilities have advised
the Foundation that all such costs can be
considerations in managing pipelines and
all relevant information should be used in
making pipeline renewal decisions.
Cromwell, J.E., III, H. Reynolds, N. Pearson, Jr., and M. Grant. 2002. Cost of Infrastructure Failure, order #90918/
project #2607. Denver, CO: Awwa Research Foundation and American Water Works Association.
MacDonald, M., Z.A. Barnes, M. Caudwell, P.R. Chadwick, N. Clarke, A. Grove, A.I.J. Heather, S. Mellot, and P.D. Selby.
(2008) 2009. Tool for Risk Management of Water Utility Assets, order #91246/project #4126. London, England:
UK Water Industry Research Limited. Reprint, Denver, CO: Water Research Foundation.
Kirmeyer, Gregory J., W. Richards, and C. Dery Smith. 1994. An Assessment of Water Distribution Systems and
Associated Research Needs, order #90658/project #706. Denver, CO: Awwa Research Foundation and American
Water Works Association.
Kirmeyer, G. and M. LeChevallier. 2001. Pathogen Intrusion Into Distribution Systems, order #90835/project #436.
Denver, CO: Awwa Research Foundation and American Water Works Association.
Sadiq, R., Y. Kleiner, and B. Rajani. 2009. Proof-of-Concept Model to Predict Water Quality Changes in
Distribution Pipe Networks (Q-WARP), order #91244, project #2970. Denver, CO: Water Research Foundation.
Group, M., D. Cook, B. McAndrew, and G. Shuker. 2009. Large Diameter Trunk Main Failures, order #91266/report
#4076. London, England: UK Water Industry Research Limited. Reprint, Denver, CO: Water Research Foundation.