º Provide a means of assess-
ing risk of lead and copper consump-
tion to the consumers in the
º Provide operator-independent
º Allow more residences to be tested
than currently prescribed by the LCR
º Provide data on other constituents
as manifested at the consumer’s tap,
e.g., chromium, barium, manganese,
strontium, vanadium, zinc
º Provide a means to monitor partial
and complete lead service line
replacements to indicate when lead
levels have subsided.
º Provide a means to sample and
assess health risk while treating the
water at the same time
Outreach and Related Research
RESULTS FROM THE project were pre-
sented at the Water Quality Association’s
Aquatech USA on April 2–5, 2013.
Members of the research team also
participated in a panel discussion on
filter design. This is an important step in
working with manufacturers in order to
achieve the production of an “ideal filter.”
The final report from this project is
expected later in 2013. In addition to proj-
ect #4415, WaterRF has other resources,
recently completed projects, and ongo-
ing projects related to lead and copper
corrosion (see sidebar).
RELATED RESOURCES AND DELIVERABLES
Summary of completed and ongoing Foundation research projects related to lead and copper corrosion.
#4211 Lead (IV) Oxide Formation and Stability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems:
Rates and Mechanisms of Processes at the Solid- Water Interface
Examined the dynamic processes that form lead oxide solids in drinking water distribution systems and that
control their subsequent stability and dissolution. Published in 2012.
#4286 Distribution System Water Quality Control Demonstration
Demonstrated the use of a monitoring strategy concept, a standardized monitoring station, and a data analytical technique in order to routinely gauge and respond to the consumers’ water quality, including lead and
copper issues, without the need to enter households for samples. The result is a comprehensive consumer-centric process control technique for water distribution systems. Published in 2012.
#4243 Is NSF 61 Relevant for Chloraminating Utilities?
Determined if NSF 61 predicts metals release with sufficient accuracy to meet the public health and regulatory needs of utilities that utilize chloramination. The report includes a knowledge base, available as a
Web Tool, of utility experience using NSF 61-approved appurtenances with chloramine disinfection. Research
partner: EPA. Published in 2012.
#4349 Galvanic Corrosion Following Partial Lead Service Line Replacement
Developed guidance for water utilities on strategies for minimizing lead release from partial lead service line
replacements, on the basis of experiments conducted with aged lead pipe utilizing commercially available
transition couplings and flow regimes encountered in real world situations. Published in 2013.
#4317 “Non-Intrusive Methodology for Assessing Lead and Copper Corrosion”
Will develop, validate, and demonstrate a portable device that will allow water utilities to monitor lead and
copper values without engaging in household tap sampling. To be completed in 2013.
#4191 “The Performance of Non-Leaded Brass Materials”
Will identify and prioritize key water quality characteristics and changes that might adversely impact the
performance and leaching of non-leaded brass drinking water distribution system components over typical
component lifetimes. Research partner: TZ W. To be completed in 2013.
#4409 “Lead and Copper Rule Revision Data Gaps”
Will develop state of the science papers and case studies for LCR related topics on “optimized corrosion control
techniques” and “lead service line replacements”. Research partner: AW WA. To be completed in 2013.
#4351 “Evaluation of Lead Service Line Lining and Coating Technologies”
Will comprehensively evaluate lead service line lining and coating technologies and provide stakeholders
with information and supporting documentation needed to make informed decisions regarding lining and
coating of both lead and copper service lines. Research partner: EPA . To be completed in 2015.