MANGANESE (MN) IS a widespread water
quality issue that impacts both surface
and groundwater utilities. In 2006, the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) estimated that 13% of all groundwater and 21% of all surface water systems
provide treatment for Mn. Depending
on the source of the Mn, the Mn concentration can vary seasonally or vary from
source to source as the raw water supply
strategy changes. Contamination of treatment chemicals by Mn or recycling flows
within the plant can create variable levels
of Mn as well.
Water system operators and design
engineers are expected to find practical,
safe, and affordable methods for removing
Mn from drinking water. When Mn con-
centrations vary, the treatment challenges
can be significant, depending on the treat-
ment plant resources and the nature of the
Mn occurrence (Figure 1). These solutions
are often required to mesh with existing
treatment facilities and water distribution
systems without major improvements
to the treatment processes or causing
adverse impacts to other water treatment
objectives like disinfection by-product
(DBP) control. For utilities that have been
unable to adequately meet Mn treatment
challenges, the aftermath of colored water
events can diminish consumer confidence
in the water system and create direct costs
to the entire community.
Given the prevalence of Mn occurrence
and the multiple methods that utilities use
to deal with Mn, there are few comprehensive references regarding the management
of Mn. To meet this need, WRF published
a comprehensive manual titled, Guidance
for the Treatment of Manganese (
project #4373, Brandhuber et al. 2013). This
manual was the most popular subscriber
report published in 2013.
The manual is intended to provide guidance to utilities and water professionals
for the effective control of Mn through
source water management and the design
and operation of Mn treatment processes.
The manual combines research, practical
experience, and utility case studies to
for controlling Mn.
are presented for how
utilities can manage Mn and how its
be integrated into
the overall treatment
objectives of a plant.
case studies are also
included that can be
used to assist utilities
in making decisions
about the management of Mn.