available literature. The case studies provide insight on the processes involved, possible benefits, and encountered constraints.
While costs for oxygenation and circulation systems vary widely,
a general sense of what it costs to undertake various forms of
oxygenation and circulation is provided.
Those considering installation of oxygenation or circulation
systems should consider the following key recommendations:
Utility staff should be part of the design team for any oxygen-
ation or circulation system, setting clear goals and gaining an
understanding of the potential and limits of each system under
consideration. Utility staff should be involved in decisions relat-
ing to any trade-offs between capacity and cost, recognizing the
resulting total cost of providing safe drinking water. Careful cost-
benefit analysis is warranted.
The choice between oxygenation and circulation as a strat-
egy to improve oxygen near the sediment-water interface and
There is overlap and potentially complementary function
between oxygenation and circulation, so multiple techniques can
be combined in a single reservoir to manage multiple aspects of
water quality. Capital and operational costs can be substantial,
therefore understanding the nature and limits of the various
oxygenation and circulation options is important to choosing
a strategy, in terms of both effectiveness and cost. WRF project
#4222c, Oxygenation and Circulation to Aid Water Supply Reservoir
Management (Wagner 2015), provides considerable guidance
in this regard.
This project is a guide for water supply reservoir managers
considering the application of oxygenation or circulation in
reservoir management. It provides a review of available techniques (Figure 1) that will help when considering options for
increasing oxygen levels or mixing raw water and includes 70
case studies, itemizing lessons learned from those cases, and the
Oxygenation and circulation represent a diverse set of tech- niques with multiple applications in reservoir management.