RECENTLY, THERE HAS been press coverage related to Lead and Copper Rule
compliance challenges in Flint, Michigan.
Additionally, at a meeting held on
November 17–19, the Environmental
Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) National
Drinking Water Advisory Council
(NDWAC) discussed recommendations
for the EPA Administrator on the Lead and
Copper National Primary Drinking Water
Regulation—Long Term Revisions. These
recommendations were provided to the
EPA administrator on December 15, 2015.
The EPA will review these recommenda-
tions and propose revisions to the Lead
and Copper Rule sometime in the next
several years. Additional updates and
news reports may be coming in the near
future related to LCR issues.
In 2015, WRF published two proj-
ects related to lead in drinking water.
Controlling Lead in Drinking Water (Brown
et al., project #4409) produced a white
paper that provides recommendations for
controlling lead in drinking water. Items
of discussion include background on lead
in drinking water (Figure 1), methods for
controlling lead at the tap, and lead service
line replacement challenges. Lead cor-
rosion chemistry is also described in this
report. The report includes six Lead and
Copper Corrosion Control Case Studies
that highlight utility experiences with
optimizing their LCR corrosion control
Evaluation of Lead Sampling Strategies
(Cornwell and Brown, project #4569), conducted a side-by-side comparison of alternative LCR sampling methods at a number
of utilities and under a variety of home/
lead service line (LSL) configurations. The
study included eight participating utilities, 37 sampling locations (homes), and
96 sampling events. This research helps
utilities compare different sampling procedures. In addition, this research could
help inform the regulatory review process for the Long-Term Lead and Copper
BROWN, R., N. McTigue, and D. Cornwell.
2015. Controlling Lead in Drinking
Water. Denver, Colo.: Water Research
Water and WRF Resources to Help
The original source of all lead in this figure is the corrosion or dissolution of the lead-containing source (pipe, fixtures, fittings,
solder, etc.). The soluble lead can theoretically remain in solution all the way to the customer tap, but can also precipitate as
scale, subject to later dissolution or dislodgement. In this figure, “scale” is considered separate from “particulate matter” or
“particles” even though they are chemically identical (e.g., mixtures of lead oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, etc.).
Source: Brown et al. 2015.
Figure 1. Sources and fates of lead in drinking water