and expanded assessment of water use. It includes more varied study site locations, hot water usage data, more detailed
landscape analysis, and additional water rate analysis. The new
study identifies variations in water use by each fixture or appliance, providing detailed information and data on changes since
the REU1999 study. Looking to the future, the study’s research
evaluates conservation potential, and includes predictive models
to forecast residential demand.
Information on single family home water consumption is significant for utility rate and revenue projections, capital planning
(water supply and infrastructure needs), daily operations to provide water, water efficiency programs, and more.
Until now, the most significant residential end use study
conducted in North America was the Water Research
Foundation’s 1999 report, Residential End Uses of Water (REU1999)
(Mayer et al. 1999). WRF’s new report, Residential End Uses of Water,
Version 2 (REU2016) (DeOreo et al. 2016), provides an updated
New Data on Residential
End Uses of Water
William B. DeOreo, Aquacraft Inc. Water Engineering and Management;
Peter Mayer, Water Demand Management; Benedykt Dziegielewski, University
of Southern Illinois; and Jack Kiefer, Hazen and Sawyer, P.C.
It is essential for water providers and the urban water supply industry to have a detailed understanding of how water is used in residential settings.