PRASHAR, Y., R. McMullin, X. Irias, M. Flores,
and K. Khatri. 2014. Pipeline Fragility
Assessment against Liquefaction
Induced Differential Settlement in City
of Alameda, and Oakland, California. In
Proc. of the ASCE Pipelines Conference.
SCOBY, G. 2012. US Case Studies in
HDPE 4710 Potable Water Distribution
Systems. In Proc. of the 15th Plastic Pipes
SEARGEAN T, D. 2014. EPCOR’s Continuing
Success with PVC Water Main Pipe. In
Proc. of the 17th Plastic Pipes Conference.
LIFE C YCLE cost
ing plastic and
some degree of
to the limited,
able plastic pipes
saddles (no direct taps
allowed), but the types of
tapping bits created some
problems, like using a hole
saw and having the tap
leak. Figure 2 shows a flow-chart AWWU developed to
aid in their pipe material
Lessons Learned. It is difficult to compare the costs
of pipe projects because
each project has special
considerations and significant variability in how
the contractors prepared
AS THE CASE studies show, selection of
pipe materials continues to be a local utility decision. Life cycle cost analysis comparing plastic and metallic pipe materials
requires some degree of speculation due
to the limited, documented lifespan of
installed, commercially serviceable plastic
pipes. Further, site-specific conditions and
preferred construction practices need to
be considered in performing such analyses. Construction issues appear to cause
the majority of plastic pipe failures. It is
possible to minimize failures through
project specifications and inspections
during construction. Based on project
workshop findings, it appears that installation practices are continuing to improve as
utilities gain more experience with plastic
pipe. Project workshop findings suggest
that pipe material cost is incidental to the
overall life cycle cost. In addition, industry
experts believe that it is well worth installing pipe, plastic or otherwise, with proven
structural integrity compared to the costs
of repair in congested city streets such as
traffic control, service interruptions, labor,
and environmental damage.
WATER and Wastewater
Utility). 2012. Design and
Manual, Anchorage Water
and Wastewater Utility.
BURN, S., P. Davis, T.
Schiller, B. Tiganis, G.
Cardy, S. Gould, P. Sadler,
and A.J. Whittle. 2005. Long-Term
Performance Prediction for PVC Pipes.
Project #2879. Denver, Colo.: AwwaRF
EPA (U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL Protection
Agency). 2002. Deteriorating Buried
Infrastructure Management Challenges
and Strategies. Washington, D.C.: EPA
Office of Ground Water and Drinking
FISHER, C. 2008. The Edmonton Story.
JWWA (JAPAN WATER Works Association).
2015. Water Supply in Japan 2015.
MARTEL, K., AND K. Klewicki. 2016. State
of the Science: Plastic Pipe. Project
#4680. Denver, Colo.: Water Research
PISCHIK, A. 2010. Using HDPE 4710 for
Water Main Replacement Projects.
Presentation at the Northern California
Pipe User’s Group 18th Annual Sharing